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AMZ WORKSHOP

OBJECTIVE:

The primary objective of the workshop was to provide an overall understanding about the working mechanisms and dynamics involved in a vehicle system. The workshop also included a live demonstration of assembling an electric vehicle, along with an elaborate explanation of the working of every part of the vehicle system.

BRIEFING:

The workshop provided an overall explanation of the functioning of a vehicle. It started with the basic explanation of automobile, automotive and automation and expanded its domain deep into topics like Aerodynamics of Vehicles, Function of Braking System,  Dynamics of Steering System and the Chassis of a Vehicle. 

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Mr. Vinay Pathak, During the Session

TOPICS COVERED:

  1. BASIC TERMINOLOGIES:​

  • AUTOMOTIVE: Any Machine with moving parts.

  • AUTOMOBILE: An automotive which helps in locomotion.

  • AUTOMATION: Any machine with moving parts included in a process.

​2. THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF CARS:

  • Sports Cars: Mainly used For the purpose of performance and looks

  • Formula 1: These cars are made just to win race, not for comfort or luxury.

  • Super car: Very expensive and fast, powerful car. Push-type product/ limited edition.

  • Concept car: These are primarily used to show off the Technological Level of any industry.

3. CHASSIS OF VEHICLES:

It is fully functional and movable unit except the body consisting of all the systems mounted. Its main purpose is to connect all four wheels with a structure which is rigid in bending and torsion.

Components:

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Types of chassis:

  • Back Bone Chassis:

    • A strong tubular backbone connects the front and rear axle and provides nearly all the mechanical strength. The whole drive train, engine and suspensions are connected to both its ends. Used in - LOTUS ESPIRIT / TVR / MARCOS.

  • Ladder Frame Chassis:

    • It consists of two longitudinal rails interconnected by several lateral and cross braces. Longitude members are the main stress member. Used in SUVs, classic cars.

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  • Tubular Space Frame:

    • Tubular space frame chassis employs dozens of circular-section tubes, position in different directions to provide mechanical strength against forces from anywhere. It is strong in any direction.

  • Monocoque:

    • Monocoque is a one-piece structure which defines the overall shape of the car. Monocoque chassis is already incorporated with the body in a single piece. Used in all mass production cars.

  • ULSAB:

    • Ultralight Steel Auto Body, basically has the same structure as a conventional monocoque. It differs from its donor in minor details like the use of "Hydroform" parts, sandwich steel and laser beam welding.

4. AERODYNAMICS OF VEHICLES:

Automotive aerodynamics is the study of the aerodynamics of road vehicles. Its main goals are reducing drag and wind noise, minimizing noise emission, and preventing undesired lift forces and other causes of aerodynamic instability at high speeds.

Aerodynamic forces on cars:

  • Lift (causes body to rise)

  • Drag (fluid resistance)

  • Weight

  • Thrust

   Basic concepts of fluid dynamics:

  • Continuity equation:

  • Bernoulli's equation:

   Aerodynamical devices:

  • Spoilers

    • They act like barriers to air flow, in order to build up higher air pressure in front of the trunk of car.

  • Scoops 

    • Scoop consist of the air box which permits an adequate volume of air to directly enter. Its main function is to provide high pressure, denser and adequate volume of outside air directly into the engine compartment.

  • Wings

    • Wings perform very efficiently and generating lots of down force in the car

  5. BRAKING SYSTEM:

       Braking system principles:

  • Kinetic Energy

  • Mass

  • Weight

  • Speed

  • Inertia 

  • Momentum

      Types of brakes:

  • Hydraulic brakes:

     

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  • Drum Brakes:

    • These consist of a metallic drum that rotates inside the wheel with a pair of brake shoes inside the drum.

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  • Disc Brakes:

    • Consists of rotating disc plate that rotates along with the wheel, just as a drum in drum brakes, with brake shoes held inside brake calipers.

  • Pneumatic Brakes

  • Electronic brakes

   Caliper types:

  • Fixed 

    • Callipers are disc brakes that use a calliper that is FIXED in position and does not slide.

  • Floating

    • They consists of a single piston and applies pressure to two pads on opposite sides of rotor.

Hydrodynamics:

  • Fluids cannot be compressed

  • Fluids can transmit and increase force

  • Fluids can transmit Movement

    • Acts “Like a steel rod” in a closed container

    • Master cylinder transmits fluid to wheel cylinder or caliper piston bore.

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Limiting brake force:

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  6. DYNAMICS OF STEERING:

      Important topics for steering dynamics: 

    

  • Slip angle

    • Slip angle arises because of deformation in the tire carcass and tread.

  • Cornering stiffness

    • Basically it is the slope of the graph b/w slip angle and total lateral force. Cornering stiffness= Lateral load/ slip angle.

  • Turning radius

    • Basically it is the tightest turn a car can make or the smallest circle in which it can turn full 360 degree.

 

  • Co-ordinate system

    • Vehicle fixed co-ordinate system

    • ​​Earth fixed co-ordinate system

  • Euler angles

    • When we want to go from vehicle fixed co-ordinate system to earth fixed co-ordinate system, earth fixed co-ordinate system is rotated in yaw than in pitch and then in roll to line up with vehicle fixed co-ordinate system.)

 

  • Understeer

    • When we deviate away from the (center) turning we wanted to) & Oversteer (When we deviate away from the (towards the center) turning we wanted to.

  • Cornering equation

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Live demonstration of the assembling of Electric Gokart:

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CONCLUSION AND FEEDBACK:

The workshop was an extremely informative one. Mr. Pathak, the Workshop Conductor was a very knowledgeable and technical person. He started the session at the very basic level and he raised the level slowly and steadily such that all the attendees could properly grasp the knowledge. His explanations were on point and helped all the attendees to gain the basic understanding of the functioning of different systems of a vehicle.

He even explained how the world is slowly shifting its paradigm from IC Engine Vehicle to Electric Vehicle. He also explicitly showed the pattern which the automobile industry will follow over the course of next 10 years and the new incoming technologies in the automotive industry including Self-Driving Cars. As a whole, the workshop was a very successful one. All the attendees were quite satisfied with the knowledge and interest they gained about automobiles. In addition to the theoretical explanations, the live assembling of the electric vehicle was one of the major attractions of the session. It was the first time the students were being demonstrated the assembling of a vehicle which further gave them a deeper insight into its functioning. All the attendees gave a very positive feedback and it is definitely recommended for the future batches.

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The core members of the club with Prof. Achintya Mukhopadhyay,

Prof. Pranibesh Mandal and Prof. Sourav Ghosh

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

 

All the information are primarily obtained from the PPT Presentations which Mr. Vinay Pathak had used during the Workshop. They were quite informative and has helped all the attendees to keep a track on the theoretical portions.

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